Generating Electricity for Bathroom Lights Using Urine

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The use of urine to generate electricity can now power lights in portable bathrooms, a breakthrough that can have significant implications for sanitation in developing countries with limited access to electricity. This innovation can also improve safety in refugee camps where going to the bathroom at night can be risky due to darkness.

Scientists from the University of the West of England have developed a method that enables urine and bacteria to react and produce enough energy to light LED tubes. This process is based on microbial fuel cells, according to Irene Merino and Daniel Sanchez, the Spanish researchers who lead the project. The findings of their study are published in the journal Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology.

The microbial fuel cells, which have a positive anode and a negative cathode, act like batteries. When installed in a urinal, bacteria grow on the anode electrode and decompose organic material in urine, starting a metabolic process that releases electrons and protons. The protons pass through a semi-permeable membrane from the anode to the cathode and join the electrons passing through an external electrical circuit. An oxygen reduction reaction, which is an intricate electrochemical process, completes the cycle, producing electricity from urine.

Two recent field tests were conducted, and the results were presented in the journal article. One of the tests was done in the public urinal cubicles during the Glastonbury Festival, the UK’s largest music festival, where thousands of people used the urinals, generating about 300 milliwatts of electricity. The other test was conducted on the University of the West of England’s campus, where a prototype generated approximately 75 milliwatts. A video of the latter test can be viewed here:

The scientists are partnering with a non-profit organization to test the urinals at refugee camps and in public toilets without lighting. They are also developing a prototype for female users. According to Ioannis Ieropoulos, director of the Bristol BioEnergy Centre, the aim is to provide electricity for lighting toilets and possibly the surrounding areas in impoverished regions, to improve the safety of women and children who use communal toilet facilities outside their homes.

Now That’s Cool

Nature Commode, a company, is exploring methods to recycle urine from public toilets into fast-acting fertilizers for farmers. The treated urine is high in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients that plants can easily absorb.


1. How does powering bathroom lights with urine work?

The process of powering bathroom lights with urine involves using microbial fuel cells, which are devices that use bacteria to generate electricity. The urine is collected in a container, and the bacteria in the fuel cells break down the organic matter in the urine, producing electrons. These electrons are then used to generate an electrical current that can power the lights. The technology is still in the experimental phase, but it has the potential to be a sustainable source of energy.

2. Is it safe to use urine to power lights?

Yes, it is safe to use urine to power lights. The bacteria used in microbial fuel cells are non-pathogenic and pose no risk to human health. However, it is important to handle urine safely and hygienically to prevent the spread of disease. Proper sanitation practices should be followed when collecting and handling urine, and the fuel cells should be designed to prevent leaks and contamination.

3. What are the benefits of using urine to power lights?

Using urine to power lights has several benefits. First, it is a sustainable source of energy that can be produced locally, reducing dependence on fossil fuels and centralized power grids. Second, it can help to address sanitation issues in areas without access to proper sewage systems. Third, it can be a cost-effective way to generate electricity, especially in developing countries where access to electricity is limited. Finally, it has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change.

4. Are there any limitations to using urine to power lights?

There are some limitations to using urine to power lights. The technology is still in the experimental phase, and more research is needed to improve its efficiency and scalability. The amount of energy that can be generated from urine is also limited, so it may not be suitable for powering large-scale applications. Additionally, the fuel cells require a certain level of maintenance and monitoring to ensure they are functioning properly and to prevent contamination.

5. Is urine the only bodily fluid that can be used to generate electricity?

No, urine is not the only bodily fluid that can be used to generate electricity. Other bodily fluids, such as sweat and saliva, can also be used in microbial fuel cells to generate electricity. However, urine is the most commonly studied bodily fluid for this application, as it is readily available and contains a high concentration of organic matter. Research is ongoing to explore the potential for other bodily fluids to be used as a sustainable source of energy.

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